It has been more than a decade since the
ifconfig command has been deprecated on Linux in favor of the
iproute2 project, which contains the magical tool
ip. Many online tutorial resources still refer to old command-line tools like
netstat. The goal of this tutorial is to share some of the simple networking-related things you can do easily using the
ip tool instead.
Find your IP address
[dneary@host]$ ip addr show
44: wlp4s0: <BROADCAST,MULTICAST,UP,LOWER_UP> mtu 1500 qdisc mq state UP group default qlen 1000
link/ether 5c:e0:c5:c7:f0:f1 brd ff:ff:ff:ff:ff:ff
inet 10.16.196.113/23 brd 10.16.197.255 scope global dynamic wlp4s0
valid_lft 74830sec preferred_lft 74830sec
inet6 fe80::5ee0:c5ff:fec7:f0f1/64 scope link
valid_lft forever preferred_lft forever
ip addr show will show you a lot of information about all of your network link devices. In this case, my wireless Ethernet card (wlp4s0) is the IPv4 address (the
/23 means that there are 23 bits of the 32 bits in the IP address, which will be shared by all of the IP addresses in this subnet. IP addresses in the subnet will range from
10.16.196.0 to 10.16.197.254. The broadcast address for the subnet (the
brd field after the IP address)
10.16.197.255 is reserved for broadcast traffic to all hosts on the subnet.
We can show only the information about a single device using
ip addr show dev wlp4s0, for example.
Display your routing table
[dneary@host]$ ip route list
default via 10.16.197.254 dev wlp4s0 proto static metric 600
10.16.196.0/23 dev wlp4s0 proto kernel scope link src 10.16.196.113 metric 601
192.168.122.0/24 dev virbr0 proto kernel scope link src 192.168.122.1 linkdown
The routing table is the local host's way of helping network traffic figure out where to go. It contains a set of signposts, sending traffic to a specific interface, and a specific next waypoint on its journey.
If you run any virtual machines or containers, these will get their own IP addresses and subnets, which can make these routing tables quite complicated, but in a single host, there are typically two instructions. For local traffic, send it out onto the local Ethernet, and the network switches will figure out (using a protocol called ARP) which host owns the destination IP address, and thus where the traffic should be sent. For traffic to the internet, send it to the local gateway node, which will have a better idea how to get to the destination.
In the situation above, the first line represents the external gateway for external traffic, the second line is for local traffic, and the third is reserved for a virtual bridge for VMs running on the host, but this link is not currently active.
Monitor your network configuration
[dneary@host]$ ip monitor all
[dneary@host]$ ip -s link list wlp4s0
ip monitor command can be used to monitor changes in routing tables, network addressing on network interfaces, or changes in ARP tables on the local host. This command can be particularly useful in debugging network issues related to containers and networking, when two VMs should be able to communicate with each other but cannot.
When used with
ip monitor will report all changes, prefixed with one of
[LINK] (network interface changes),
[ROUTE] (changes to a routing table),
[ADDR] (IP address changes), or
[NEIGH] (nothing to do with horses—changes related to ARP addresses of neighbors).
You can also monitor changes on specific objects (for example, a specific routing table or an IP address).
Another useful option that works with many commands is
ip -s, which gives some statistics. Adding a second
-s option adds even more statistics.
ip -s link list wlp4s0 above will give lots of information about packets received and transmitted, with the number of packets dropped, errors detected, and so on.
Handy tip: Shorten your commands
In general, for the
ip tool, you need to include only enough letters to uniquely identify what you want to do. Instead of
ip monitor, you can use
ip mon. Instead of
ip addr list, you can use
ip a l, and you can use
ip r in place of
Ip link list can be shorted to
ip l ls. To read about the many options you can use to change the behavior of a command, visit the ip manpage.