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Encrypt and decrypt files with a passphrase on Linux | Opensource.com
Encrypt and decrypt files with a passphrase on Linux
Age is a simple, easy-to-use tool that allows you to encrypt and decrypt files with a single passphrase.
Encryption and security for protecting files and sensitive documents have long been a concern for users. Even as more and more of our data is housed on websites and cloud services, protected by user accounts with ever-more secure and challenging passwords, there's still great value in being able to store sensitive data on our own filesystems, especially when we can encrypt that data quickly and easily.
Age allows you to do this. It is a small, easy-to-use tool that allows you to encrypt a file with a single passphrase and decrypt it as required.
Age is available to install from most Linux repositories.
To install it on Fedora:
$ sudo dnf install age -y
Encrypting and decrypting files with age
Age can encrypt and decrypt files with either a public key or a passphrase set by the user.
Using age with a public key
First, generate a public key and write the output to a
$ age-keygen -o key.txt
Public key: age16frc22wz6z206hslrjzuv2tnsuw32rk80pnrku07fh7hrmxhudawase896m9
Encrypt with a public key
To encrypt a file with your public key:
$ touch mypasswds.txt | age -r ageage16frc22wz6z206hslrjzuv2tnsuw32rk80pnrku07fh7hrmxhudawase896m9 > mypass.tar.gz.age
In this example, the file
mypasswds.txt is encrypted with the public key I generated and put inside an encrypted file called
Decrypt with a public key
To decrypt the information you've protected, use the
age command and the
$ age --decrypt -i key.txt -o mypass.tar.gz mypass.tar.gz.age
In this example, age uses the key stored in
key.text and decrypts the file I created in the previous step.
Encrypt with a passphrase
Encrypting a file without a public key is known as symmetrical encryption. It allows a user to set the passphrase to encrypt and decrypt a file. To do so:
$ age --passphrase --output mypasswd-encrypted.txt mypasswd.txt
Enter passphrase (leave empty to autogenerate a secure one):
In this example, age prompts you for a passphrase, which it uses to encrypt the input file
mypasswd.txt and render the file
mypasswd-encrypted.txt in return.
Decrypt with a passphrase
To decrypt a file encrypted with a passphrase, use the
age command with the
In this example, age prompts you for the passphrase, then decrypts the contents of the
$ age --decrypt --output passwd-decrypt.txt mypasswd-encrypted.txt
passwd-decrypt.txt, as long as you provide the passphrase that matches the one set during encryption.
Don't lose your keys
Whether you're using passphrase encryption or public-key encryption, you must not lose the credentials for your encrypted data. By design, a file encrypted with age cannot be decrypted without the key used to encrypt it. So back up your public key, and remember those passphrases!
Easy encryption at last
Age is a really robust tool. I like to encrypt my sensitive files, especially tax records and other archival data, into a
.tz file for later access. Age is user-friendly and makes it very easy to get started with encryption on the go.