How I got started with bash scripting

With a few simple Google searches, a programming novice learned to write code that automates a previously tedious and time-consuming task.
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I wrote a script the other day. For some of you, that sentence sounds like no big deal. For others, and I know you're out there, that sentence is significant. You see, I'm not a programmer. I'm a writer.

What I needed to solve

My problem was fairly simple: I had to juggle files from engineering into our documentation. The files were available in a .zip format from a web URL. I was copying them to my desktop manually, then moving them into a different directory structure to match my documentation needs. A fellow writer gave me this advice: "Why don't you just write a script to do this for you?"

I thought "just write a script?!?"—as if it was the easiest thing in the world to do.

How Google came to the rescue

My colleague's question got me thinking, and as I thought, I googled.

What scripting languages are on Linux?

This was my first Google search criteria, and many of you are probably thinking, "She's pretty clueless." Well, I was, but it did set me on a path to solving my problem. The most common result was Bash. Hmm, I've seen Bash. Heck, one of the files I had to document had Bash in it, that ubiquitous line #!/bin/bash. I took another look at that file, and I knew what it was doing because I had to document it.

So that led me to my next Google search request.

How to download a zip file from a URL?

That was my basic task really. I had a URL with a .zip file containing all the files I needed to include in my documentation, so I asked the All Powerful Google to help me out. That search gem, and a few more, led me to Curl. But here's the best part: Not only did I find Curl, one of the top search hits showed me a Bash script that used Curl to download a .zip file and extract it. That was more than I asked for, but that's when I realized being specific in my Google search requests could give me the information I needed to write this script. So, momentum in my favor, I wrote the simplest of scripts:


curl http://rather.long.url | tar -xz -C my_directory --strip-components=1

What a moment to see that thing run! But then I realized one gotcha: The URL can change, depending on which set of files I'm trying to access. I had another problem to solve, which led me to my next search.

How to pass parameters into a Bash script?

I needed to be able to run this script with different URLs and different end directories. Google showed me how to put in $1, $2, etc., to replace what I typed on the command line with my script. For example:

bash http://rather.long.url my_directory

That was much better. Everything was working as I needed it to, I had flexibility, I had a working script, and most of all, I had a short command to type and save myself 30 minutes of copy-paste grunt work. That was a morning well spent.

Then I realized I had one more problem. You see, my memory is short, and I knew I'd run this script only every couple of months. That left me with two issues:

  • How would I remember what to type for my script (URL first? directory first?)?
  • How would another writer know how to run my script if I got hit by a truck?

I needed a usage message—something the script would display if I didn't use it correctly. For example:

usage: bash <'snapshot_url'> <directory>

Otherwise, run the script. My next search was:

How to write "if/then/else" in a Bash script?

Fortunately I already knew if/then/else existed in programming. I just had to find out how to do that. Along the way, I also learned to print from a Bash script using echo. What I ended up with was something like this:



if [ $# -eq 0 ];
 echo "usage: bash <'snapshot_url'> <directory>".

     # make the directory if it doesn't already exist
 echo 'create directory'


 # fetch and untar the yaml files
 echo 'fetch and untar the yaml files'

 curl $URL | tar -xz -C $DIRECTORY --strip-components=1

How Google and scripting rocked my world

Okay, slight exaggeration there, but this being the 21st century, learning new things (especially somewhat simple things) is a whole lot easier than it used to be. What I learned (besides how to write a short, self-documented Bash script) is that if I have a question, there's a good chance someone else had the same or a similar question before. When I get stumped, I can ask the next question, and the next question. And in the end, not only do I have a script, I have the start of a new skill that I can hold onto and use to simplify other tasks I've been avoiding.

Don't let that first script (or programming step) get the best of you. It's a skill, like any other, and there's a wealth of information out there to help you along the way. You don't need to read a massive book or take a month-long course. You can do it a simpler way with baby steps and baby scripts that get you started, then build on that skill and your confidence. There will always be a need for folks to write those thousands-of-lines-of-code programs with all the branching and merging and bug-fixing.

But there is also a strong need for simple scripts and other ways to automate/simplify tasks. And that's where a little script and a little confidence can give you a kickstart.

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Sandra McCann is a Linux and open source advocate. She's worked as a software developer, content architect for learning resources, and content creator. Sandra is currently a content creator for Red Hat in Westford, MA focusing on Ansible. 


What a great story. I still solve a looooooot of tasks in my daily work via bash. It fits for a ton of things in and I am always surprised how far you can come with bash scripts. Colleagues always tease me to learn something different like python, but as look no as I can solve it with bash, I will continue ?.

One recommendation.. Maybe check if the directory exists before you create it. So you only create it if it is not there.

Cheers Oliver

you can simply do that with mkdir -p instead of mkdir. the man page say this about the -p option:

"no error if existing, make parent directories as needed"

In reply to by Sandra McCann

If there's a 101 Intro to Bash, this is the Freshman Orientation Week "001 Hello Bash Students!" presentation.

And that's great! Best of all, it teaches methods for gaining information (pretty much how most of us learn it, in fact, these days), instead of just basic commands.

Slackware's package management tools are all written in Bash. It's nice, because it's easy to read, understand, and port. I've used slackpkg and related tools on a RISC Debian machine and quite enjoyed it.

From that, I learnt not to underestimate or undervalue Bash as a tool, or POSIX's integration with shell scripting. I know other OS's can be scripted, but I have yet to see one that respects the user as much as POSIX.

A great tool that can validate what you write along with recommended fixes Shellcheck.

It seems like a great tool indeed. Thanks for sharing.

In reply to by Kenny Jones (not verified)

Hey Sandra!
That inspired me to start Bash-scripting too. I just wrote a script to download the latest build folders as soon as it gets created! Following your blog from now!

Thanks folks! Some great helpful additions in the comments thread.

You need to check that the cmd line arguements are not less than 2. You current usage message will only display if you give no cmds.

Nice to feel empowered. Congrats.

I'm still a fledgling, so this is all new to me...I will just continue to push myself to learn all I can using Bash. And Linux of course, seems those two go hand in hand like...peanut butter and chocolate! Thanks for a VERY informative article!!

There is a difference between #!/bin/sh and #!/bin/bash

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