Solve a real-world problem using Java

See how Java differs from Python and Groovy as it's used to solve a charity's real-world problem.
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As I wrote in the first two articles in this series, I enjoy solving small problems by writing small programs in different languages, so I can compare the different ways they approach the solution. The example I'm using in this series is dividing bulk supplies into hampers of similar value to distribute to struggling neighbors in your community, which you can read about in the first article in this series.

In the first article, I solved this problem using the Groovy programming language, which is like Python in many ways, but syntactically it's more like C and Java. In the second article, I solved it in Python with a very similar design and effort, which demonstrates the resemblance between the languages.

Now I'll try it in Java.

The Java solution

When working in Java, I find myself declaring utility classes to hold tuples of data (the new record feature is going to be great for that), rather than using the language support for maps offered in Groovy and Python. This is because Java encourages creating maps that map one specific type to another specific type, but in Groovy or Python, it's cool to have a map with mixed-type keys and mixed-type values.

The first task is to define these utility classes, and the first is the Unit class:

class Unit {
    private String item, brand;
    private int price;

    public Unit(String item, String brand, int price) {
        this.item = item;
        this.brand = brand;
        this.price = price;
    }
    public String getItem() { return this.item; }
    public String getBrand() { return this.brand; }
    public int getPrice() { return this.price; }

    @Override
    public String toString() { return String.format("item: %s brand: %s price: %d",item,brand,price); }
}

There's nothing too startling here. I effectively created a class whose instances are immutable since there are no setters for fields item, brand, or price and they are declared private. As a general rule, I don't see value in creating a mutable data structure unless I'm going to mutate it; and in this application, I don't see any value in mutating the Unit class.

While more effort is required to create these utility classes, creating them encourages a bit more design effort than just using a map, which can be a good thing. In this case, I realized that a bulk package is composed of a number of individual units, so I created the Pack class:

class Pack {
    private Unit unit;
    private int count;

    public Pack(String item, String brand, int unitCount, int packPrice) {
        this.unit = new Unit(item, brand, unitCount > 0 ? packPrice / unitCount : 0);
        this.count = unitCount;
    }

    public String getItem() { return unit.getItem(); }
    public String getBrand() { return unit.getBrand(); }
    public int getUnitPrice() { return unit.getPrice(); }
    public int getUnitCount() { return count; }
    public List<Unit> unpack() { return Collections.nCopies(count, unit); }


    @Override
    public String toString() { return String.format("item: %s brand: %s unitCount: %d unitPrice: %d",unit.getItem(),unit.getBrand(),count,unit.getPrice()); }
}

Similar to the Unit class, the Pack class is immutable. A couple of things worth mentioning here:

  1. I could have passed a Unit instance into the Pack constructor. I chose not to because the bundled, physical nature of a bulk package encouraged me to think of the "unit-ness" as an internal thing not visible from the outside but that requires unpacking to expose the units. Is this an important decision in this case? Probably not, but to me, at least, it's always good to think through this kind of consideration.
  2. Which leads to the unpack() method. The Pack class creates the list of Unit instances only when you call this method—that is, the class is lazy. As a general design principle, I've found it's worthwhile to decide whether a class' behavior should be eager or lazy, and when it doesn't seem to matter, I go with lazy. Is this an important decision in this case? Maybe—this lazy design enables a new list of Unit instances to be generated on every call of unpack(), which could prove to be a good thing down the road. In any case, getting in the habit of always thinking about eager vs. lazy behavior is a good habit.

The sharp-eyed reader will note that, unlike in the Groovy and Python examples where I was mostly focused on compact code and spent way less time thinking about design decisions, here, I separated the definition of a Pack from the number of Pack instances purchased. Again, from a design perspective, this seemed like a good idea as the Pack is conceptually quite independent of the number of Pack instances acquired.

Given this, I need one more utility class: the Bought class:

class Bought {
    private Pack pack;
    private int count;

    public Bought(Pack pack, int packCount) {
        this.pack = pack;
        this.count = packCount;
    }

    public String getItem() { return pack.getItem(); }
    public String getBrand() { return pack.getBrand(); }
    public int getUnitPrice() { return pack.getUnitPrice(); }
    public int getUnitCount() { return pack.getUnitCount() * count; }
    public List<Unit> unpack() { return Collections.nCopies(count, pack.unpack()).stream().flatMap(List::stream).collect(Collectors.toList()); }

    @Override
    public String toString() { return String.format("item: %s brand: %s bought: %d pack(s) totalUnitCount: %d unitPrice: %d",pack.getItem(),pack.getBrand(),count,pack.getUnitCount() * count,pack.getUnitPrice()); }
}

Notably:

  1. I decided to pass a Pack into the constructor. Why? Because to my way of thinking, the physical structure of the purchased bulk packages is external, not internal, as in the case of the individual bulk packages. Once again, it may not be important in this application, but I believe it's always good to think about these things. If nothing else, note that I am not married to symmetry!
  2. Once again the unpack() method demonstrates the lazy design principle. This goes to more effort to generate a list of Unit instances (rather than a list of lists of Unit instances, which would be easier but require flattening further out in the code).

OK! Time to move on and solve the problem. First, declare the purchased packs:

        var packs = new Bought[] {
            new Bought(new Pack("Rice","Best Family",10,5650),1),
            new Bought(new Pack("Spaghetti","Best Family",1,327),10),
            new Bought(new Pack("Sardines","Fresh Caught",3,2727),3),
            new Bought(new Pack("Chickpeas","Southern Style",2,2600),5),
            new Bought(new Pack("Lentils","Southern Style",2,2378),5),
            new Bought(new Pack("Vegetable oil","Crafco",12,10020),1),
            new Bought(new Pack("UHT milk","Atlantic",6,4560),2),
            new Bought(new Pack("Flour","Neighbor Mills",10,5200),1),
            new Bought(new Pack("Tomato sauce","Best Family",1,190),10),
            new Bought(new Pack("Sugar","Good Price",1,565),10),
            new Bought(new Pack("Tea","Superior",5,2720),2),
            new Bought(new Pack("Coffee","Colombia Select",2,4180),5),
            new Bought(new Pack("Tofu","Gourmet Choice",1,1580),10),
            new Bought(new Pack("Bleach","Blanchite",5,3550),2),
            new Bought(new Pack("Soap","Sunny Day",6,1794),2)
        };

This is pretty nice from a readability perspective: there is one pack of Best Family Rice containing 10 units that cost 5,650 (using those crazy monetary units, like in the other examples). It's straightforward to see that in addition to the one bulk pack of 10 bags of rice, the organization acquired 10 bulk packs of one bag each of spaghetti. The utility classes are doing some work under the covers, but that's not important at this point because of the great design job!

Note the var keyword is used here; it's one of the nice features in recent versions of Java that help make the language a bit less verbose (the principle is called DRY—don't repeat yourself) by letting the compiler infer the variable's data type from the right-side expression's type. This looks kind of similar to the Groovy def keyword, but since Groovy by default is dynamically typed and Java is statically typed, the typing information inferred in Java by var persists throughout the lifetime of that variable.

Finally, it's worth mentioning that packs here is an array and not a List instance. If you were reading this data from a separate file, you would probably prefer to create it as a list.

Next, unpack the bulk packages. Because the unpacking of Pack instances is delegated into lists of Unit instances, you can use that like this:

        var units = Stream.of(packs)
            .flatMap(bought -> {
                return bought.unpack().stream(); })
            .collect(Collectors.toList());

This uses some of the nice functional programming features introduced in later Java versions. Convert the array packs declared previously to a Java stream, use flatmap() with a lambda to flatten the sublists of units generated by the unpack() method of the Bought class, and collect the resulting stream elements back into a list.

As in the Groovy and Java solutions, the final step is repacking the units into the hampers for distribution. Here's the code—it's not much wordier than the Groovy version (tiresome semicolons aside) nor really all that different:

        var valueIdeal = 5000;
        var valueMax = Math.round(valueIdeal * 1.1);
        var rnd = new Random();
        var hamperNumber = 0;                         // [1]

        while (units.size() > 0) {                    // [2]
            hamperNumber++;
            var hamper = new ArrayList<Unit>();
            var value = 0;                            // [2.1]
            for (boolean canAdd = true; canAdd; ) {   // [2.2]
                var u = rnd.nextInt(units.size());            // [2.2.1]
                canAdd = false;                               // [2.2.2]
                for (int o = 0; o < units.size(); o++) {      // [2.2.3]
                    var uo = (u + o) % units.size();
                    var unit = units.get(uo);                      // [2.2.3.1]
                    if (units.size() < 3 ||
                            !hamper.contains(unit) &&
                            (value + unit.getPrice()) < valueMax) { // [2.2.3.2]
                        hamper.add(unit);
                        value += unit.getPrice();
                        units.remove(uo);                           // [2.2.3.3]
                        canAdd = units.size() > 0;
                        break;                                      // [2.2.3.4]
                    }
                }
            }                                                // [2.2.4]
            System.out.println();
            System.out.printf("Hamper %d value %d:\n",hamperNumber,value);
            hamper.forEach(unit -> {
                System.out.printf("%-25s%-25s%7d\n", unit.getItem(), unit.getBrand(),
                       unit.getPrice());
            });                                                      // [2.3]
            System.out.printf("Remaining units %d\n",units.size());  // [2.4]

Some clarification, with numbers in brackets in the comments above (e.g., [1]) corresponding to the clarifications below:

  • 1. Set up the ideal and maximum values to be loaded into any given hamper, initialize Java's random number generator and the hamper number.
  • 2. This while {} loop will redistribute units into hampers as long as there are more available:
    • 2.1 Increment the hamper number, get a new empty hamper (a list of Unit instances), and set its value to 0.
    • 2.2 This for {} loop will add as many units to the hamper as possible:
      • 2.2.1 Get a random number between zero and the number of remaining units minus 1.
      • 2.2.2 Assume you can't find more units to add.
      • 2.2.3 This for {} loop, starting at the randomly chosen index, will try to find a unit that can be added to the hamper.
        • 2.2.3.1 Figure out which unit to look at.
        • 2.2.3.2 Add this unit to the hamper if there are only a few left or if the value of the hamper isn't too high once the unit is added and that unit isn't already in the hamper.
        • 2.2.3.3 Add the unit to the hamper, increment the hamper value by the unit price, and remove the unit from the available units list.
        • 2.2.3.4 As long as there are units left, you can add more, so break out of this loop to keep looking.
      • 2.2.4 On exit from this for {} loop, if you inspected every remaining unit and could not find one to add to the hamper, the hamper is complete; otherwise, you found one and can continue looking for more.
    • 2.3 Print out the contents of the hamper.
    • 2.4 Print out the remaining units info.

When you run this code, the output looks quite similar to the output from the Groovy and Python programs:

Hamper 1 value 5465:
Tofu                     Gourmet Choice              1580
Bleach                   Blanchite                    710
Coffee                   Colombia Select             2090
Flour                    Neighbor Mills               520
Sugar                    Good Price                   565
Remaining units 150

Hamper 2 value 5482:
Sardines                 Fresh Caught                 909
Tomato sauce             Best Family                  190
Vegetable oil            Crafco                       835
UHT milk                 Atlantic                     760
Chickpeas                Southern Style              1300
Lentils                  Southern Style              1189
Soap                     Sunny Day                    299
Remaining units 143

Hamper 3 value 5353:
Soap                     Sunny Day                    299
Rice                     Best Family                  565
UHT milk                 Atlantic                     760
Flour                    Neighbor Mills               520
Vegetable oil            Crafco                       835
Bleach                   Blanchite                    710
Tomato sauce             Best Family                  190
Sardines                 Fresh Caught                 909
Sugar                    Good Price                   565
Remaining units 134



Hamper 23 value 5125:
Sardines                 Fresh Caught                 909
Rice                     Best Family                  565
Spaghetti                Best Family                  327
Lentils                  Southern Style              1189
Chickpeas                Southern Style              1300
Vegetable oil            Crafco                       835
Remaining units 4

Hamper 24 value 2466:
UHT milk                 Atlantic                     760
Spaghetti                Best Family                  327
Vegetable oil            Crafco                       835
Tea                      Superior                     544
Remaining units 0

The last hamper is abbreviated in contents and value.

Closing thoughts

The similarities in the "working code" with the Groovy original are obvious—the close relationship between Groovy and Java is evident. Groovy and Java diverged in a few ways in things that were added to Java after Groovy was released, such as the var vs. def keywords and the superficial similarities and differences between Groovy closures and Java lambdas. Moreover, the whole Java streams framework adds a great deal of power and expressiveness to the Java platform (full disclosure, in case it's not obvious—I am but a babe in the Java streams woods).

Java's intent to use maps for mapping instances of a single type to instances of another single type pushes you to use utility classes, or tuples, instead of the more inherently flexible intents in Groovy maps (which are basically just Map<Object,Object> plus a lot of syntactic sugar to vanish the kinds of casting and instanceof hassles that you would create in Java) or in Python. The bonus from this is the opportunity to apply some real design effort to these utility classes, which pays off at least insofar as it instills good habits in the programmer.

Aside from the utility classes, there isn't a lot of additional ceremony nor boilerplate in the Java code compared to the Groovy code. Well, except that you need to add a bunch of imports and wrap the "working code" in a class definition, which might look like this:

import java.lang.*;
import java.util.*;
import java.util.Collections.*;
import java.util.stream.*;
import java.util.stream.Collectors.*;
import java.util.Random.*;

public class Distribute {

    static public void main(String[] args) {
        // the working code shown above
    }
}
class Unit {}
class Pack {}
class Bought {}

The same fiddly bits are necessary in Java as they are in Groovy and Python when it comes to grabbing stuff out of the list of Unit instances for the hampers, involving random numbers, loops through remaining units, etc.

Another issue worth mentioning—this isn't a particularly efficient approach. Removing elements from ArrayLists, being careless about repeated expressions, and a few other things make this less suitable for a huge redistribution problem. I've been a bit more careful here to stick with integer data. But at least it's quite quick to execute.

Yes, I'm still using the dreaded while { … } and for { … }. I still haven't thought of a way to use map and reduce style stream processing in conjunction with a random selection of units for repackaging. Can you?

Stay tuned for the next articles in this series, with versions in Julia and Go.

What to read next

Why I use Java

There are probably better languages than Java, depending on work requirements. But I haven't seen anything yet to pull me away.

Chris Hermansen portrait Temuco Chile
Seldom without a computer of some sort since graduating from the University of British Columbia in 1978, I have been a full-time Linux user since 2005, a full-time Solaris and SunOS user from 1986 through 2005, and UNIX System V user before that.

4 Comments

Are the classes Bought, Pack and Unit not 100% Boilercode !?
There is no business there.
The interesting part (logic) is in the big while loop.

package OOP;

public class Oop
{

public static void main(String[] args)
{
Units units = new Units();
units.add("Rice","Best Family",10,5650,1);
units.add("Spaghetti","Best Family",1,327,10);
units.add("Sardines","Fresh Caught",3,2727,3);
units.add("Chickpeas","Southern Style",2,2600,5);
units.add("Lentils","Southern Style",2,2378,5);
units.add("Vegetable oil","Crafco",12,10020,1);
units.add("UHT milk","Atlantic",6,4560,2);
units.add("Flour","Neighbor Mills",10,5200,1);
units.add("Tomato sauce","Best Family",1,190,10);
units.add("Sugar","Good Price",1,565,10);
units.add("Tea","Superior",5,2720,2);
units.add("Coffee","Colombia Select",2,4180,5);
units.add("Tofu","Gourmet Choice",1,1580,10);
units.add("Bleach","Blanchite",5,3550,2);
units.add("Soap","Sunny Day",6,1794,2);

var valueIdeal = 5000;
var valueMax = Math.round(valueIdeal * 1.1);

while (units.notEmpty())
{
Hamper hamper = new Hamper(valueMax);
while(units.tryToAddUnitsToHamper(hamper));
hamper.print();
System.out.printf("Remaining units %d\n\n",units.size());
}
}
}

****************

package OOP;

import java.util.ArrayList;

public class Units
{
private List units = new ArrayList<>();
private static Random rnd = new Random();

public void add(String item, String brand, int unitCount, int overalPrice, int packs)
{
for(int i=0; i0;
}

public boolean tryToAddUnitsToHamper(Hamper hamper)
{
boolean canAdd = false;
var u = rnd.nextInt(units.size());
for (int o = 0; o < units.size(); o++)
{
var uo = (u + o) % units.size();
var unit = units.get(uo);
if ((units.size() < 3) || unit.canAddToHamper(hamper))
{
unit.addToHamper(hamper);
units.remove(uo);
canAdd = units.size() > 0;
break;
}
}
return canAdd;
}

public int size()
{
return units.size();
}
}

*******************

package OOP;

class Unit
{
private String item, brand;
private int price;

public Unit(String item, String brand, int price)
{
this.item = item;
this.brand = brand;
this.price = price;
}

public void addToHamper(Hamper hamper)
{
hamper.addUnit(this, this.price);
}

@Override
public String toString() { return String.format("%-25s%-25s%7d",item,brand,price); }

public boolean canAddToHamper(Hamper hamper)
{
return hamper.canAdd(this,price);
}
}

*******************

package OOP;

import java.util.ArrayList;

public class Hamper
{
private static int number = 0;
private List units = new ArrayList();
private long value;
private long size;

public Hamper(long size)
{
this.size = size;
number++;
}

public void addUnit(Unit unit,int price)
{
units.add(unit);
value+=price;
}

public void print()
{
System.out.printf("Hamper %d value %d:\n\n",number,value);
for(Unit unit:units)
System.out.println(unit);
}

public boolean canAdd(Unit unit,int price)
{
return((!units.contains(unit)) && ((value + price) < size));
}

}

************************

IMHO more (OOP) readable code
(also not getter methods that would violate iformation hiding).

Belatedly, thanks for your comments, Bernd. I think there's a bit missing from your exposition for example in your class Units your for loop sort of trails off before doing anything. In any case I guess we could debate whether refactoring a compact piece of code like the while loop here actually buys anything.

What I was hoping is that some functional programming wizard would come up with a functional replacement for my while loop (that doesn't modify its input and that is efficient).

Also, with respect, I completely disagree with your comment about "getter methods that would violate information hiding" - the whole point being that there is no maintainability benefit to anyone, neither the person who defines the class nor the persons who use the class later, of exposing the internal implementation details. Instead it's better to define a contract, via getters and setters and perhaps through an interface, that leaves the class maintainer free to change internals as / when necessary.

This is called the "Uniform access principle". You can read about it in many places, for example here:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Uniform_access_principle

Among many different approaches to lessening the pain of boilerplate getters / setters is Project Lombok, which uses annotations to auto-generate the getters and setters. Baeldung has a nice hands-on overview of this:

https://www.baeldung.com/intro-to-project-lombok

In reply to by Bernd Schatz

ok, so i have probably not understood the intention of your example.

Regarding getter and setters: the remark was not *how* you expose the internals of your class, but *that* you expose it.

e.g. --> https://www.yegor256.com/2014/09/16/getters-and-setters-are-evil.html

Thanks for your comments, Bernd. It's always great to engage with readers, really appreciated.

Let's first review what we're trying to accomplish - we go to a bulk products store and buy a bunch of bulk packages. We take them back to the office. We take the bulk packages apart and redistribute the units into hampers of approximately equal value, and we give those to the neighbours.

Let's look at Golub's principle here "get the object to do work" and how my classes fit or don't.

The Pack class has a method called unpack(). This precisely follows Golub's principle - it's how I tell Pack to give me a list of its constituent Unit instances.

Similarly Bought has an unpack() method, that gives me a list of the all the Unit instances in the number of Pack instances purchased. So again following Golub's rule.

At this point, we could note that we have actually bought some self-unpacking bulk materials, set them on the floor of the office, and told them to unpack themselves; we end up with a list of the constituent parts, called Units.

Let's look at the other rules mentioned in your link.

"violated encapsulation principle" - actually the point of getters and setters is to help with encapsulation. Things outside the objects cannot reach inside them; they have to communicate by known pathways. Over and above that, my classes are effectively immutable as I mentioned - no setters - so there is no possibility of injecting anything; the field values are established when Unit, Pack and Bought instances are created and can't be subsequently altered. Moreover the field values cannot be viewed from the outside because the fields are private. So I can change the internal structure any way I want, as long as I can continue to honour the contract established by the getter methods. The Unit itself is a tuple, existing only to encapsulate the key characteristics of the unit concept - what the unit is, who made it and what is its value. We NEED to know these things because we're going to put those units into hampers and the people receiving the hampers need to be able to see what's in them and plan how to use them.

"exposed implementation details" - again, the point of getters and setters is to avoid exposing implementation details. The classic example is the concept of "geometry", where the user needs to know some details about the encapsulated geometry - for example, its length or area - without knowing how it is stored. To that are added the Golub-style needs, like "compute the polygon of intersection of this geometry with another geometry".

The other point made in the article you mentioned is "objects are / are not simple data holders". I agree that objects are not just simple data holders. Let's look at the Java String class for example. Yes it holds an immutable string value. But it also has lots of getter-like methods, like length(), substring() and so on.

My classes Pack and Bought are not simple data classes either. They include the unpack() method, which is the only behaviour I require of them. Unit IS a simple data class - it's a tuple. I don't need to tell a Unit to do anything in my problem space; I just need to move it around.

I probably should have put the List of Unit distribution functionality in a separate class, with a constructor taking the List of Unit instances and a method that would return a List of Hamper instances. Instead I chose to create those hampers on the fly, just printing them out as created.

As an aside, I believe a bad design would have been to feed the "packs" array of Bought instances into the hypothetical distribution functionality as that would violate the principle of low coupling. That is, a change in Bought, Pack or Unit could cause a change in the distribution functionality. Whereas with its only "input" being a List of Unit instances, changes to Bought or Pack are irrelevant.

Back to your comment - the point of getters and setters is that THEY DO NOT EXPOSE the internals of your classes. Getters especially, and setters where a mutable object is wanted, encapsulate (hide) the implementation details. All you can claim is that you know some of what is being stored; not how it is stored, nor what kinds of computations are involved.

What seems to bother a lot of people is the idea of automatically generating a getter and a setter for every private field of a class. Of course this isn't necessarily a uniformly good idea - especially setters, as one should always be thinking about whether instances of a class should be immutable or not. Of course it's also possible that a class will have fields that ONLY have meaning internally, and it would be pointless to proved a getter, much less a setter, for that kind of field.

But assuming classes are fit for purpose and they only provide the necessary communication pathways to users, where is the basis for arguing that such limited use of getters and setters are bad?

In my case, since my classes have no setters, you can't make the claim that you can inject any old data into the instances.

Moreover, since you cannot determine from the public methods of my Pack and Bought classes whether I keep a list of the incorporated Unit instances, or whether I just (lazily) materialize that list when unpack() is called, you can't really make the claim that you know all about the internal implementation details of those classes just because I provide you with getters equivalent to what's on the label of the bulk package.

In my Pack or Bought instances, you can argue that my getters are unnecessary since I don't appear to need to know what's inside them. But maybe I want Pack to have the equivalent of a "label" on the bulk package that tells me what's inside without unpacking it, or Bought to tell me how many Units of something I have in total without unpacking all the bulk packages and counting the components. In any case, I don't make use of those methods in this program, so it's certainly valid to say I don't need the getters.

Here's a nice discussion:

https://stackoverflow.com/questions/34805276/do-setter-and-getter-methods-breaks-encapsulation

In reply to by Bernd Schatz

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